Saturday, 7 February 2015

write a short note on human development

What is human development?
       Since 1990, the development economists are laying great emphasis on the human development both at the national and international level. Human development is now considered a global issue. Human development define by Dr . Mahbub-ul-haq is the process of enlarging people’s choices as well as raising the level of well-being already achieved.  According to the modern economists, human life cannot be enriched by the increase of only one choice i.e. income. There are other human choices such as leading a long and health life, to be educated and enjoying a decent standard of living, clean environment, political freedom, human rights etc., which are essential improving the human condition.

The difference between economic growth and the human development is that the first exclusively stresses on the expansion of only one choice i.e., income as a measure of economic development. Human development, on the other hand, covers the enlargement of all human choices whether they are political, social, or cultural. Dr mahbub-ul-haq rightly warns, “unless society recognizes that their real wealth is their people, an excessive obsession with creating material wealth can obscure that goal of enriching human life”.

Why human development is considered necessary?
         Human development is considered necessary for the following reasons.
After the second world war, development was seen merely in terms of economic growth. However, in the nineties, took place a major shift in the development thinking,  the modern economists led by late Dr . mahbub-ul-haq emphasized that economic growth is necessary for human well-being. It is an important indicator of improving the economic conditions  of the people but it is not the end in itself. The fact is that human development is the end while economic growth is the mean to achieve this end. The ultimate objective is to improve the human conditions and this objective can only be achieved by enlarging the peoples choices such as knowledge, health, political freedom, access to pleasures of life and other necessary resources which are needed for a decent standard of living.
Human development is an important source of higher productivity in all sectors of the economy. If people of a country are healthy, educated and well skilled, they increase productivity and become an important productive asset.
It has been experienced all over the world that with the improvement in education levels, health facilities and economic conditions, there is reduction in infant mortality fall in the family size and a decrease in mortality rate.
Human development is essential for physical environment. A country with low population growth and low population density generally creates healthy physical environment in the country.
Human development helps in reducing civil disturbances and in increasing political stability in the society.

Main components of human development
          According to Dr mahbub-ul-haq there four essential components in the human development.

(1) Equity: Equity means that all the people should have equal access to opportunities available in the country for enlarging peoples choices to achieve opportunities, there should be a (i) change in the distribution of productive assets through land reforms (ii) introduction of  progressive fiscal policy for transferring
income from rich to poor. (iii) provision of credit to the needy people for productive purposes (iv) giving opportunities to the low income groups to actively participate in politics.

(2) Sustainability:  Sustainability is an essential component of human development. The present and future generation must have mutual access to share development opportunities. If this opportunity is not available, human development will not progress.

(3) Productivity: Productivity in all sectors of the economy can be increased at a rapid speed by increasing investment in human capital.

(4) Empowerment: Empowerment means that people should be in a position to exercise choices of their own free will. This can only be possible if there is political democracy in the country. Less economic controls and regulations, decentralizations of power, provision of equal opportunities to women to compete with men on an equal footing.

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